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Culvert is a structure, usually of tunnel type that carries a stream or open drain under a road, railroad or any other obstruction from one side to the other side. Materials which can be used for culverts include a reinforced concrete, pipe or other material that have good performance when is embedded and surrounded by soil.
One of the first modern bridges to be made were truss bridges. They could be made of wood which some places had plethora and could withstand larger weights. They were later made of iron and steel. Many of those old modern bridges still stand.
Over the last 3000 years, engineers and architects have devised many ways of building bridges. Here you can see for yourself bridge types that are in use today, from what materials they are made, and for what uses are they built.
Beam bridge is the oldest and the simplest type of the bridge. It appeared when the first tree fell over the stream and a human crossed it. Today we still make bridges that use similar principle.