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Culvert is a structure, usually of tunnel type that carries a stream or open drain under a road, railroad or any other obstruction from one side to the other side. Materials which can be used for culverts include a reinforced concrete, pipe or other material that have good performance when is embedded and surrounded by soil.
One of the first modern bridges to be made were truss bridges. They could be made of wood which some places had plethora and could withstand larger weights. They were later made of iron and steel. Many of those old modern bridges still stand.
A viaduct is a bridge composed of a series of spans or arches that carries a road or a railway across a valley or a gorge. A viaduct usually refers to long bridges or series of bridges connected to one another by arch structures.
Tied-arch bridge is a bridge that carries itself and can be constructed at places that have problems with unstable soil. It can be problematic if it is not maintained properly but there are tied-arch bridges that are over a century old and are still in use.