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A howe truss bridge design includes vertical members and diagonals that slope up towards the center. Its diagonals are under compression under balanced loading. It was invented in 1840 by Massachusetts millwright William Howe. Howe truss design proved to be instrumental not only in the development of several notable bridges at the end of an era of fully wooden bridges but also as an inspiration for the creation of other popular designs.
Culvert is a structure, usually of tunnel type that carries a stream or open drain under a road, railroad or any other obstruction from one side to the other side. Materials which can be used for culverts include a reinforced concrete, pipe or other material that have good performance when is embedded and surrounded by soil.
Tied-arch bridge is a bridge that carries itself and can be constructed at places that have problems with unstable soil. It can be problematic if it is not maintained properly but there are tied-arch bridges that are over a century old and are still in use.
One of the seven modern wonders of the world – Channel tunnel between Britain and France has a much longer history than we could assume at first sight. It existed in the minds of dreamers for two centuries.